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Category: General



As soon as there have been two brethren, of 1 mom and one father; Anpu was the identify of the elder, and Bata was the identify of the youthful. Now, as for Anpu he had a home, and he had a spouse. However his little brother was to him because it had been a son; he it was who made for him his garments; he it was who adopted behind his oxen to the fields; he it was who did the plowing; he it was who harvested the corn; he it was who did for him all of the issues that had been within the discipline. Behold, his youthful brother grew to be a superb employee, there was not his equal in the entire land; behold, the spirit of a god was in him.

Now after this the youthful brother adopted his oxen in his day by day, method; and each night he turned once more to the home, laden with all of the herbs of the sector, with milk and with wooden, and with all issues of the sector. And he put them down earlier than his elder brother, who was sitting along with his spouse; and he drank and ate, and he lay down in his secure with the cattle. And on the daybreak of day he took bread which he had baked, and laid it earlier than his elder brother; and he took with him his bread to the sector, and he drave his cattle to pasture within the fields. And as he walked behind his cattle, they mentioned to him, “Good is the herbage which is in that place”; and he listened to all that they mentioned, and he took them to the great place which they desired. And the cattle which had been earlier than him grew to become exceeding glorious, they usually multiplied tremendously.

Morrow morning

Now on the time of plowing his elder brother mentioned unto him: “Allow us to make prepared for ourselves a goodly yoke of oxen for plowing, for the land has come out from the water: it’s match for plowing. Furthermore, do thou come to the sector with corn, for we’ll start the plowing within the morrow morning.” Thus mentioned he to him; and his youthful brother did all issues as his elder brother had spoken unto him to do them.

And when the morn was come, they went to the fields with their issues; and their hearts had been happy exceedingly with their activity at first of their work. And it got here to move after this that as they had been within the discipline they stopped for corn, and he despatched his youthful brother, saying, “Haste thou, convey to us corn from the farm.” And the youthful brother discovered the spouse of his elder brother, as she was sitting tying her hair. He mentioned to her: “Stand up, and provides to me corn, that I’ll run to the sector, for my elder brother hastened me; don’t delay.” She mentioned to him: “Go, open the bin, and thou shalt take to thyself based on thy will, that I’ll not drop my locks of hair whereas I gown them.”

28/08/2017     0 Comments  

Avram Kamondo Relations


These bankers, especially Avram Kamondo, was finan¬cing the defense expenses of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War between the years 1853 and 1856. Avram Kamondo had very close relations with all the grand vi¬ziers of the period, and even his intimate friendship with Mustafa Re§it Pasha was not a secret to anyone. He al¬so served as the financial consultant of Mustafa Re$it Pasha. He was awarded the title “Count” as to be assig¬ned to his son after his death in 1867 by the Kingdom of Italy as a result of his close relations with King Vitto¬rio Emmanuelle II of Italy and the contributions he had wade. “The first person with foreign-nationality who ac¬hieved the permission to buy real estate in the Ottoman State” is Avram Kamondo.

In addition to his financial businesses. Kamondo had al¬so developed a lot of projects about his congregation. The Jewish community during 1830’s was so illiterate and ignorant that “any Jewish person who learned a dif¬ferent language was to be deemed he changed his religi¬on”. Avram Kamondo took the leadership and manage¬ment of the congregation. He was aware of the modern education in Europe as he very frequently visited there. He anticipated a modern elementary school where Tur¬kish, French and Hebrew would be taught. The school which was established in Haskoy, Piripa§a started scho¬oling in 1854. However, it was not welcomed by some reactionary rabbis and fanatic congregation, so he decided to withdraw among the cries “we are loosing our re¬ligion!” Upon death of his only son in 1866, Avram Kamondo decided to move to Paris with his grandchildren in 1872. He passed away in his manor in Paris the next year. He willed to be buried in Istanbul and therefore Avram Kamondo’s body was brought to Istanbul with the help of the Ottoman State. He was buried in the ma¬usoleum he had built beforehand. He was so much loved by Istanbul people that on the day his body was brought to Istanbul, all the personnel in the stock exchange and finance institutions ceased their work while Jewish pe¬ople were in mourning. The tradesmen in Galata. and Golden Horn also closed their shops.

After Avram Kamondo’s settlement in Paris, on the ot¬her hand, his bank in Istanbul shrunk its businesses. It was closed in 1910’s. Family members carried on living in Paris and contribute to works of art. The great wealth of the family disappeared with the break of World War II and all the members of the family were sent to Ausch¬witz Concentration Camp. Kamondo’s, who were one of the richest families in the world once, shook deeply with the death of Avram Kamondo and ended up in a tragically in a concentration camp…

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26/03/2017     0 Comments  

The Military Expedition to Nahcivan

On 28 August 1553, the Sultan started from Istanbul for a new military expedition to Iran. This was his twelfth mili-taiyexpedition. He was quite an aged man, 59 years old. The Sultan arrived in Erzurum via Konya and Diyarbakir and from there he advanced in Kars direction. Sending an insulting letter to the Shah as his father Sultan Selim, had Previously done, challenged him to a fight. But none of these treats yielded a result, the Iranian army once again did not appear on the scene. The Turkish army proceeded in the directions of Karabag and Nahcivan areas. Although the Sultan’s army reached as far as Nahcivan, Shah Tahmasp and his army where always freeing away. Under these conditions, the army was set free to enter and completely destroy the city. The Sultan believed that doing that much damage was good enough and decided to return.

When the army reached Erzurum on its way back, the Sultan received an appeal from the Shah for an armistice. It was accepted on condition that peace was realized and the enmity between the two countries was terminated. The Sultan’s plans were to spend the winter of 1554-1555 in Amasya and to continue the operations against Iran in the spring. Shah’s envoy arrived in Amasya with new proposals, precious gifts and a letter to the Sultan. A Peace treaty, was made when Shah gave a word of assurance for friendship (1555). According to these treaty Azerbaijan and its capital Tebriz, the eastern part of Anatolia and the Arabian Iraq were being annexed to the Ottoman State.

This first treaty concluded with Iran was in effect until the year 1576. Through the peace of Amasya, the fights of the Ottomans and Iran which stretched over half a century came to an end. During the military expeditions of the Magnificent, no Iranian army had the courage to get involved in a decisive battle with the Ottoman armies. Therefore, the military expeditions were no more than invasions. The Iranians however, after the withdrawal of the Ottoman army continued their attacks to the Eastern Anatolia. The Ottoman State during this war,secured contact with the Turkish States in the Central Asia forming an alliance with them and extending assistance.

20/03/2017     0 Comments   , ,