Written on 28/08/2017
(ANPU AND BATA)
As soon as there have been two brethren, of 1 mom and one father; Anpu was the identify of the elder, and Bata was the identify of the youthful. Now, as for Anpu he had a home, and he had a spouse. However his little brother was to him because it had been a son; he it was who made for him his garments; he it was who adopted behind his oxen to the fields; he it was who did the plowing; he it was who harvested the corn; he it was who did for him all of the issues that had been within the discipline. Behold, his youthful brother grew to be a superb employee, there was not his equal in the entire land; behold, the spirit of a god was in him.
Now after this the youthful brother adopted his oxen in his day by day, method; and each night he turned once more to the home, laden with all of the herbs of the sector, with milk and with wooden, and with all issues of the sector. And he put them down earlier than his elder brother, who was sitting along with his spouse; and he drank and ate, and he lay down in his secure with the cattle. And on the daybreak of day he took bread which he had baked, and laid it earlier than his elder brother; and he took with him his bread to the sector, and he drave his cattle to pasture within the fields. And as he walked behind his cattle, they mentioned to him, “Good is the herbage which is in that place”; and he listened to all that they mentioned, and he took them to the great place which they desired. And the cattle which had been earlier than him grew to become exceeding glorious, they usually multiplied tremendously.
Now on the time of plowing his elder brother mentioned unto him: “Allow us to make prepared for ourselves a goodly yoke of oxen for plowing, for the land has come out from the water: it’s match for plowing. Furthermore, do thou come to the sector with corn, for we’ll start the plowing within the morrow morning.” Thus mentioned he to him; and his youthful brother did all issues as his elder brother had spoken unto him to do them.
And when the morn was come, they went to the fields with their issues; and their hearts had been happy exceedingly with their activity at first of their work. And it got here to move after this that as they had been within the discipline they stopped for corn, and he despatched his youthful brother, saying, “Haste thou, convey to us corn from the farm.” And the youthful brother discovered the spouse of his elder brother, as she was sitting tying her hair. He mentioned to her: “Stand up, and provides to me corn, that I’ll run to the sector, for my elder brother hastened me; don’t delay.” She mentioned to him: “Go, open the bin, and thou shalt take to thyself based on thy will, that I’ll not drop my locks of hair whereas I gown them.”
Written on 26/03/2017
RELATIONS WITH UPPER CLASS…
These bankers, especially Avram Kamondo, was finan¬cing the defense expenses of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War between the years 1853 and 1856. Avram Kamondo had very close relations with all the grand vi¬ziers of the period, and even his intimate friendship with Mustafa Re§it Pasha was not a secret to anyone. He al¬so served as the financial consultant of Mustafa Re$it Pasha. He was awarded the title “Count” as to be assig¬ned to his son after his death in 1867 by the Kingdom of Italy as a result of his close relations with King Vitto¬rio Emmanuelle II of Italy and the contributions he had wade. “The first person with foreign-nationality who ac¬hieved the permission to buy real estate in the Ottoman State” is Avram Kamondo.
In addition to his financial businesses. Kamondo had al¬so developed a lot of projects about his congregation. The Jewish community during 1830’s was so illiterate and ignorant that “any Jewish person who learned a dif¬ferent language was to be deemed he changed his religi¬on”. Avram Kamondo took the leadership and manage¬ment of the congregation. He was aware of the modern education in Europe as he very frequently visited there. He anticipated a modern elementary school where Tur¬kish, French and Hebrew would be taught. The school which was established in Haskoy, Piripa§a started scho¬oling in 1854. However, it was not welcomed by some reactionary rabbis and fanatic congregation, so he decided to withdraw among the cries “we are loosing our re¬ligion!” Upon death of his only son in 1866, Avram Kamondo decided to move to Paris with his grandchildren in 1872. He passed away in his manor in Paris the next year. He willed to be buried in Istanbul and therefore Avram Kamondo’s body was brought to Istanbul with the help of the Ottoman State. He was buried in the ma¬usoleum he had built beforehand. He was so much loved by Istanbul people that on the day his body was brought to Istanbul, all the personnel in the stock exchange and finance institutions ceased their work while Jewish pe¬ople were in mourning. The tradesmen in Galata. and Golden Horn also closed their shops.
After Avram Kamondo’s settlement in Paris, on the ot¬her hand, his bank in Istanbul shrunk its businesses. It was closed in 1910’s. Family members carried on living in Paris and contribute to works of art. The great wealth of the family disappeared with the break of World War II and all the members of the family were sent to Ausch¬witz Concentration Camp. Kamondo’s, who were one of the richest families in the world once, shook deeply with the death of Avram Kamondo and ended up in a tragically in a concentration camp…
This article is published for enmarbg. For more interesting information about Bulgaria vacations, please visit www.enmarbg.com .
Written on 20/03/2017
On 28 August 1553, the Sultan started from Istanbul for a new military expedition to Iran. This was his twelfth mili-taiyexpedition. He was quite an aged man, 59 years old. The Sultan arrived in Erzurum via Konya and Diyarbakir and from there he advanced in Kars direction. Sending an insulting letter to the Shah as his father Sultan Selim, had Previously done, challenged him to a fight. But none of these treats yielded a result, the Iranian army once again did not appear on the scene. The Turkish army proceeded in the directions of Karabag and Nahcivan areas. Although the Sultan’s army reached as far as Nahcivan, Shah Tahmasp and his army where always freeing away. Under these conditions, the army was set free to enter and completely destroy the city. The Sultan believed that doing that much damage was good enough and decided to return.
When the army reached Erzurum on its way back, the Sultan received an appeal from the Shah for an armistice. It was accepted on condition that peace was realized and the enmity between the two countries was terminated. The Sultan’s plans were to spend the winter of 1554-1555 in Amasya and to continue the operations against Iran in the spring. Shah’s envoy arrived in Amasya with new proposals, precious gifts and a letter to the Sultan. A Peace treaty, was made when Shah gave a word of assurance for friendship (1555). According to these treaty Azerbaijan and its capital Tebriz, the eastern part of Anatolia and the Arabian Iraq were being annexed to the Ottoman State.
This first treaty concluded with Iran was in effect until the year 1576. Through the peace of Amasya, the fights of the Ottomans and Iran which stretched over half a century came to an end. During the military expeditions of the Magnificent, no Iranian army had the courage to get involved in a decisive battle with the Ottoman armies. Therefore, the military expeditions were no more than invasions. The Iranians however, after the withdrawal of the Ottoman army continued their attacks to the Eastern Anatolia. The Ottoman State during this war,secured contact with the Turkish States in the Central Asia forming an alliance with them and extending assistance.
Sultan Abdulmecit moved his court from Topkapi Palace to Dolmabahce Palace in 1855.
The palace that was built in showy style called Sekerci Style, is built by the Armenian Balyan family.
It forms a complex with Dolmabahqe Mosque and the Clock Tower. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey, died in this palace in 1938. The interior decoration of the palace is in harmony with the complexity of the exterior surface which extends as far as 500 meters parallel to the sea.
(Open between 9 AM -4 PM everyday except Monday and tbursday, Dolmabahce Caddesi (Dolmabahce).
Dolmabahce Palace, constructed in 1855, after Topkapi Palace, is an imposing building on the sea shore.
Aynali Kavak Kasri
Aynali Kavak Kasi, located at the shore of Bosphorus, is a palace decorated with Venetian mirrors. The palace that was built in the 18^ century by the order of Sultan Selim UI and rebuilt in 1830, hosts the cultural activities today. Open between 9.30 AM – 5 PM every day except Monday and Thursday, Kasimpasa Haskoy Yolu (Kasimpasa).
Next to Anadolu Hisan, right at the shore is Kuquksu Kasn with its pretty fountain, from the 19th century.
Open between 9.30 AM – 5 PM everyday except Monday and Thursday, Anadolu Hisan
Beylerbeyi Kasi that is located on the Asian side, to the north of the Bosphorus Bridge was a pavilion where the empires and sultans hosted their guests. Its construction was completed in 1865.
Open between 9.30 AM – 5 PM Every day except Monday and Thursday, Beylerbeyi.
Bab-i Ali and Alay Kosku
Bab-i Ali used to have the same impression between r843-i922, what Kremlin has today for the European politicians. Alay Kosku, with its wavy roof and two fountains is across the building that was once the administrative centre of Ottoman Empire.
Alemdar Caddesi (Sultanahmet).
Open between 9.30 AM – 5 PM everyday except Monday and Thursday,
As the best palace in terms of condition remained from Byzantium,
Tekfur Sarayi, with its three-floor decorative exterior surface, is dates to the late 13th century with a great possibility.
It was built between the front and main walls of Theodosian Walls.
Open between 9 AM – 12.30 PM and 1.30 PM-5 PM everyday except Monday,
Hoca Sakir/Sishane Caddesi (Ayvansaray).
Sait Halim Pasha Chalet
Sait Halim Pasa Chalet, which is placed in Yenikoy, is now back to the life after the restoration works that lasted for years. The chalet, which was built as a sea palace by Petraki Adamandidis from Canakkale in the first years of 19th century, is placed in a garden that has a pier and also a gate to Bosphorus. It is also named a “chalet with lions” because of the two lion sculptures that are in the front of the garden called “selamlik”.
Rooms lined up around the middle sofa constitute the main plan of the chalet, rising on the marble basement as two levels. South part and north parts of the chalet are separated for men and women only. The entrance to the both parts is through the glassed-in sections. In spite of the plain exterior of the chalet the interior walls and ceilings are decorated by Arabic influenced ornaments.
Written on 18/06/2016
He was born in Vardar of Yenice. His real name is Mansur. Being from the cadi class he was a scholar, a historian and a poet. He died in Istanbul in 985/1577. According to Tahir Bey of Bursa Agehi left a complete divan. Agehi took part in Suleyman the Lawgiver’s last campaign Zigetvar in 974/1566 and wrote a historical record of this event as well. He wrote a commemarotive poem of more than fifteen couplets with conventional mariner’s language and offered it to the Sultan through Piyale Pasha. According to records he was given the Sheref Thelogical School in Istanbul. Since he was in Gelibolu as a teacher in close contact with Piyale Pasha who was a master seaman of those times, it is only natural that he wrote about the sea and knew the conventional terminology of the seaman pretty well.
In our literature we have had the tradition of writing with terminologies of various subjects and occupations. Some of these occupations and subjects are astronomy, music, books, medicine and logic. We do have poems written by Agehi written during this period with mariner phraseology which were an influence in literary circles. Although there were poets like Yetimi who wrote poems in the field before Agehi did his was the well known and studied of the two works. His poems seem to be the ones considered to be more worthwile to study and teach by people like Deruni, Taflicah Yahya Bey, Aski (Işki), Gubari, Za’fi and Molla Mehmed.
Writting with mariner terminology and using words of this phraseology in stating metaphase and allegories in prose and poetry both was quite common among writers and poets of Suleyman the Lawgiver period. We could attribute this fact to the greatness, the popularity and to the grandness of the Ottoman navy during these times. The fact that sailors of the empire reached all the way to India in Suleyman’s reign made the prospects of the occupation look more prestigions, glorious and rewarding than were before.
Glorifying of the same subject was common among literary people during the following centuries as well. We have poems by Zari (died 1098/1686), Refeti (died 1118/1706) and Bursali Feyzi (died 1185/1771-1772) written in mariner language.
Written on 16/06/2016
In the Ottoman State, wedding ceremonies were held for the sultans and padishahs, and circumcision feasts were organized for the sons of the padishahs. Especially the circumcisions were given high importance. The celebrations lasted for at least three days and nights, or sometimes for a couple of weeks. For Instance In 1582, the circumcision of Shahzadah Mehmet (Mehmet III), son of Sultan Murat III, was celebrated for 50 days. During the nighttime, celebrations continued with candle light and torchlight illuminations and fireworks. In addition to the palace residents, ordinary people -without any discrimination whatsoever- would attend these festivities. Artists and entertainers throughout the Empire were performing in festivities and ceremonies. Many artists and craftsmen, from different branches of arts -like poetry, architecture, decoration and embroidery, three-dimensional portraying, illumination, music, dance, pantomime-, were brought together to stage or exhibit their works. While circus, military and sports shows were performed, parades were held.
Most Important Object of the Wedding: Nahil
Nahil is a tree-shaped accessory made of wax. It is ornamented with nutshells, precious stones, golden and silver leaves, silk handkerchiefs, candles, colorful and gilded papers. Some nahils were designed in gigantic sizes. There were nahils as high as 24m, which were taken around the entire city, in case a problem would arise, while the nahil was being walked around the city, instead of looking for an alternative roule, the guards would demolish the building hindering the nahil from passing. Nahils were thinning towards the top, more or less like pyramids.
Usually, the bottom perimeter would be around 5-6m. Its shape was symbolizing the manly power of the groom, while the ornamentations were signifying the abundance of the bride’s fertility. In 1524 the two nahils decorated for the wedding ceremony of Makbul Ibrahim Pasha, were comprised of 60.000 and 40.000 pieces.
Hurrem Sultan’s wedding
In the writings about Hiirrem Sultan’s (a.k.a. Roxelana) wedding, found by the English Consul Sir George Young, it was recorded: “In Istanbul, something extraordinary took place, something which has never happened in the history of the Ottoman dynasty. Padishah Sultan Suleiman married his concubine Roxelana, of Russian origin, who became the empress. Great festivities took place in the city. The indescribable wedding ceremony, which was held in the palace and the dazzling entertainments were beyond imagination. A wedding parade was organized. All the streets were illuminated at night. Performers played instruments. Many entertainers took stage. The residents were decorated with lights. On almost every corner there were swings for the public to have fun. A large platform was constructed on the Sultanahmet Square. A gilded fence was built around the platform, which was reserved for the new empress and the women of the palace. Here a great competition was held. Hiirrem Sultan and the other palace residents came to watch it. The competition was attended by Muslim and Christian knights. Acrobats, rope dancers, jugglers, many ferocious animals, long-necked sky-high giraffes performed many shows.”
Fatma Sultan, daughter of Ahmet III
Another well-known wedding was organized for the daughter of Ahmet III, the famous sultan of the Tulip Period (1718-1730). Ahmet III was very meticulous about the upbringing of his beloved daughter, who was born in 1704. When she was only five Ahmet III sent a message to Silahtar Ali Pasha, one of the popular pashas of the time. He ordered the pasha to send his gifts for the engagement ceremony. Considering that Ali Pasha was one of the richest persons of his time, the engagement presents were talked about by the entire city. The countless presents were the top subject of the gossipers. Ali Pasha sent presents not only to his bride-to-be, but to his father, the Sultan, her mother, the other palace residents and to her nannies. The list of the presents exceeded 30 pages. Among them were horses, jewelry, belts, valuable books, prayer- rugs prayer beads made of precious stones and pelts.
Ummugulsum Sultan gets engaged
Inspired by the engagement he organized for his first daughter Ahmet III made endless charities. He became so exuberant with his achievement that he ordered Vizier Abdurrahman Pasha to engage his second daughter, who was a baby in her cradle at the time. After the celebrations for 25 days, Fatma Sultan’s bride parade was held. This parade was richer and more glittering that the procession carrying the bride’s trousseau. That day, all the viziers, scholars and state officials came to Topkapi Palace and waited for the procession. Finally, Fatma Sultan left the palace in a silver carriage, accompanied by 31 other carriages full of palace women and maids and nahil carriers. The silver carriage Fatma Sultan was riding was simply stunning, although they definitely were not as eye-catching as this one; the other carriages were also reflecting the wealth with their colors, horses and drivers. In front of the procession the tall shipyard workers were walking, carrying the silver nahil. The carriages had horses with heavy fabrics wrapped around their necks. The procession, led by the grand vizier, was wandering slowly around the streets of Istanbul.
Written on 24/05/2016
“The threatening scenarios are a factor. They cannot be ignored.”
Tnvestors found themselves staring spellbound at the quotation boards A of financial markets in mid-March. The inferno in Japan had stoked uncertainty in particular, which was already high due to the uprisings in North Africa and the sharp rise in the oil price. Christian Ohswald, Manager of Private Banking at Raiffeisenlandesbank Niederdsteneich- Wien, puts it thus: “The threatening scenarios are a factor. You cannot simply ignore the levels of national debt now prevalent in European periphery countries, the problems in the Arab world, or the situation in Japan.”
The signs were positive when it came to saving the euro, at least, after heads of government in the Eurozone states reached an agreement to double the euro rescue package. On the other hand, the rise in inflation, which reached 2.4 percent in the Eurozone in February, continues to generate concern. Susanne Hollinger, Private Banking Manager ofErste Bank, commented: “The rate of inflation has risen in Europe. But I’m not expecting to see a further sharp increase in the near future, however, or even inflation spiralling out of control.” Jurgen Danzmayr, Head of Private Banking at Bank Austria, went on: “For inflation actually to experience a lasting rise, the wage-price-spiral needs to begin spiralling very quickly, and the preconditions for this don’t exist at present. Those still wishing to play it safe can invest part of their assets in inflation-linked bonds. According to Marcel Landesmann, Chair of the Board of Directors at Bank Vontobel 0sterreich, however, wise heads will not pursue such a strategy too brashly. Landesmann: “Inflation could rise to three percent in the medium term. Buying inflation-linked bonds only makes sense, however, if the increase actually turns out to be higher.” Raiffeisen expert Ohswald agrees: “inflation-proof bonds do not protect you against rising real rates of interest. In a scenario of that nature, they need to be handled as carefully as traditional government bonds.”
“Inflation could rise to three percent in the medium term.”
Where shares are concerned, the paper form continues to point to useful opportunities. However, investors should not flirt with the idea that the large profits that could be generated on many stock exchanges between March 2009 and the beginning of this year will continue unabated. In light of the precarious situation in the crisis spots of the world, moreover, investors will need to factor in often heavy price fluctuations on markets. From the point of view of share evaluation, at least, exchanges are well placed. The securities of the world share index, MSCI World, are still reasonably valued with a price-eamings ratio of 13 based on profit estimates for 2011 as a whole. While investment experts particularly liked stock exchanges in emerging markets last year, the pendulum has now swung back in the other direction. Private Banking Head Danzmayr: “The trend is positive in the USA and Europe, and particularly France and Germany in the latter. Measured by their price-earnings ratios, European shares are 30 percent cheaper than papers on Wall Street on average. On top of that, the average dividend yield in Europe is still 1.6 percentage points above US securities.”